Switchgear | Umweltbundesamt

Mar 04, 2020 · Sulphur hexafluoride (gaz sf6), which has a very high global warming potential, is used for insulation and arc interruption in switchgear. Sulfr hexafluoride emissions have been successfully reduced thanks to a voluntary industry commitment. Alternative products to substitute sf6 gas in various applications are developed.Get price

Relevance of Sulfr hexafluoride in Switchgear and its Contribution to

Major Contributors of gaz sf6. Rather intriguingly, Germany is the biggest contributor to sf 6 emissions in Europe. Primarily, due to a very high installed base of insulating gas based Switchgear. Outside Europe, United States and Japan are also major contributors towards the Sulfr hexafluoride emissions.Get price

Impact assessment of F-gas free medium voltage switchgear

Jun 29, 2020 · June 29, 2020. Sulphur hexafluoride (insulating gas) plays an important role as an insulating gas in electrical switchgear at various voltage levels when interrupting and diverting current flows. At the same time, it is one of the most effective greenhouse gases with a very long lifetime and, although the concentration of insulating gas in the atmosphere is currently still very low, it accumulates steadily over the years.Get price


End-of-life emissions encompass the whole end-of-life handling from extraction via transport to recycling or deletion of the gas. Regulations regarding end-of-life handling are in place but the quality of the actual implementation is uncertain. The average end-of-life emissions are difficult to determine. Partly because of the different user groupsGet price

Limiting sf 6 Gas Emissions by Optimization of Design and

maintenances and at the end of life of the equipment. This paper describes all the steps taken in our company from this point of view. First, SF 6 management during development and the manufacturing of a circuit breaker in plants, including the SF 6 inventories complying with CAPIEL methodology are described. Second, SFGet price

End of life services for medium voltage equipment - Service

End of life services for medium voltage equipment Plant and equipment disposal, PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) disposal, pollution prevention / control, waste minimization, Sulfr hexafluoride gas decommissioning and disposal.Get price

EU-F-Gas-regulation and its impact on manufacturers and users

maintenance, service, end-of-life of equipment SF. 6 - recycling, processing Æ. in practice: improvement of SF. 6-quality • certify own staff • contract OEM or service companies with certified personal onlyGet price

Sulfr hexafluoride Gas End of Life Services abb

insulating gas/N2 mixtures at end of service life or whenever required. For this long time lasting technology Solvay has developed steps in filling, mixing and separation technology. Fig. 11 Gas insulated line for insulating gas / N2 mixture in a tunnel 245 – 550 kV (Siemens, Germany) Fig. 10 Polyethylene coated GIL system for direct burial 245 – 550 kV. Get PriceGet price

0630 ABB ENG 3 05

end of life management, electrical equipment containing sf6 gas gas allow for solutions that have a minimal impact on the environment. As proof of this, the proportion of sf6 gas emissions from high and medium voltage switchgear in the European Union (EU) was less than 0.05 percent of the total greenhouse effect in 2002. Ecological balance sheets (soGet price

Germany - Plant and animal life | Britannica

Germany - Germany - Plant and animal life: Since Germany is a somewhat arbitrary south-north slice across central Europe, it does not have vegetation and animal life greatly different from that of neighbouring countries. Before being settled, Germany was almost totally forested, except for a few areas of marsh. There is now little truly natural vegetation; both the cultivated areas and theGet price

(PDF) SWITCHGEAR AND gaz sf6 GAS | C-Jay Chang - Academia.edu

Emissions of greenhouse gases in Iceland from 1990 to 2011 National Inventory Report 2013 Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol Birna Sigrún Hallsdóttir, Christoph Wöll, Jón Guðmundsson, Arnór Snorrason, Jóhann ÞórssonGet price

German Society for Plant Sciences - Wikipedia

The German Society for Plant Sciences (also known as German Botanical Society, Deutsche Botanische Gesellschaft, DBG) is a non-profit network for plant sciences and botany in the German-speaking area. It was founded 1882 at Eisenach, Germany.Get price

sf6 gas Circuit breaker up to 17.5 kV - Schneider Electric

b the Sulfr hexafluoride gas is under control from production through to the circuit-breaker’s end of life. In particular it can be recovered at the end of the circuit-breaker’s life and re-used after treatment in line with the new European directive, b an end of life manual for the product details procedures for dismantling and recycling components.Get price

Myth About sf 6 Gas In Electrical Equipment

Aug 24, 2017 · Therefore they only have to assure that the disposal and the end of life is carried out by a qualified entity, in accordance with available national rules. 14. How is the proper end-of-life treatment of Sulfr hexafluoride-switchgear ensured? Following internationally acknowledged instructions (i.e. according to IEC 601634, CIGRE 2003 sf 6 Recycling Guide).Get price

Medium Voltage blue GIS | Systems | Siemens Global

May 24, 2021 · The ZVEI Power Engineering Division represents the common interests of its members towards political, social and economic decision-makers in Germany and Europe. The association also engages itself in the discussion about Sulfr hexafluoride and sf6 gas alternatives.Get price

Why the European Union Should Ban gaz sf6 | Energy Central

What Is sf6 gas? and How Is It used?Is Sulfr hexafluoride A Danger to Human Health?How Environmentally Damaging Is It?Has The Environmental Impact Even Been Underestimated?Is The Mitigation of gaz sf6 Emissions Difficult? Do Better Solutions Exist?ConclusionSulfr hexafluoride is a long-lived, highly potent greenhouse gas. It is manmade and combines excellent electrical properties with chemical stability and low toxicity. Moreover, It’s non-flammable and low in cost. These characteristics have led to its widespread and enthusiastic adoption by the electrical industry, which uses approximately 80% of all sf6 gasproduced (Powell, 2002: 6). Within the electrical industry Sulfr hexafluorideis used as an insulating medium for medium (MV) and high (HV) voltage electrical switchgear. A switchgear is the combination of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate sections of electrical grids. Low-voltage (LV) switchgear are used for controlling electrical circuits within buildings, medium voltage (MV) switchgear for controlling the electrical grids within cities and towns, and high voltage (HV) switchgear for grids that span a greater geographical area such as countries and regions.Get price

Circassians - Wikipedia

The Circassians refer to themselves as Adyghe (also transliterated as Adyga, Adyge, Adygei, Adyghe, Attéghéi).The name is believed to derive from atté "height" to signify a mountaineer or a highlander, and ghéi "sea", signifying "a people dwelling and inhabiting a mountainous country near the sea coast", or "between two seas".Get price

Position Paper Potential for Optimising the Use of SF in Switch-

(e.g. carbon footprint, end-of-life treatment). International standards needed for use of alternative gases or gas mixtures in electrical equipment and their handling are currently only available for SF 6. According to experi-ence, the time frame for standardisation can be far more than 5 years, which meansGet price


end-of-life handling or stimulate re-use/re-cycle of SF 6. Scope: The scope of this working group is to give practical guidelines for proper SF 6 end-of-life treatment contained in TD equipment as a blueprint for environmental responsible end-of-life handling of SF 6 in the electric power industry. Some of the main issues that must beGet price

Press | Company | Siemens

The ICE celebrates its birthday - 30 years of high-speed rail in Germany Press on Twitter Please click on "Accept" if you wish to see twitter content here and accept that your data will be transmitted to, and processed by, twitter.Get price

Retinal layers and visual conductivity changes in a case

(VEPs) are suited to investigat e functional impairment of theentirevisualpathway[15–17], and multifocal VEPs (mfVEPs) have demonstrated a higher sensitivity for path-ology compared to fullfield VEPs, in previous studies [ 15– 17]. The advantage of the mfVEP technique is that by stimulating the different sectors of the visual field consecu-Get price

€100 million German insect protection plan will protect

Sep 06, 2019 · €100 million German insect protection plan will protect habitats, restrict weed killers, and boost research. By Gretchen Vogel Sep. 6, 2019 , 12:10 PM. BERLIN—Save the whales, sure.But saveGet price

VEP estimation of visual acuity: a systematic review

Purpose: Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can be used to measure visual resolution via a spatial frequency (SF) limit as an objective estimate of visual acuity. The aim of this systematic review is to collate descriptions of the VEP SF limit in humans, healthy and disordered, and to assess how accurately and precisely VEP SF limits reflect visual acuity.Get price

ABB products and services A - Z index

We have a complete portfolio of industrial technology products for customers in utilities, industry, transport and infrastructureGet price

Glyphosate in German adults - Time trend (2001 to 2015) of

The broadband herbicide glyphosate (N-[phosphonomethyl]-glycine) and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were analyzed by GC-MS-MS in 24h-urine samples cryo-archived by the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). Samples collected in 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 …Get price

Plant feeding by insect vectors can affect life cycle

Introduction. The interplays between herbivorous insects, plants and microbes are impressively diversified and constitute a fascinating field of investigation, both for the richness of the underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms of attack, defence or mutualistic interaction and for the extension of these relationships in a much broader ecological context (Pieterse Dicke 2007).Get price

The Postwar Fertilizer Industry Explodes

All were located in the interior of the country. Several of the plants were built alongside natural gas pipelines so they could use the gas as raw material for their production. By the end of the war, these new plants and the old ones were producing 730,000 tons of ammonia each year, and had the capacity of producing 1.6 million tons.Get price

3AP1 FG 145 kV Circuit Breaker - Siemens

plant had reached the target value of 1.5% (emitted from the total amount used for development, production and filling of products). Since then, the use of modern systems and proper handling have made it possible to reduce that figure to 0.6 %. Material composition of the 3AP1 FG 145kV SF 6 reduction as a contribution to green manufacturing SFGet price

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Maternal docosahexaenoic acid

model724,Hamburg,Germany)andrecordedtothenearestg. Length was measured in the supine position using an infant measuring mat and recorded to the nearest 0.5 cm. The larg-est occipital frontal head circumference was recorded to the nearest 0.1 cm using a paper measuring tape.Standard devia-tion scores and centiles were determined using the BritishGet price